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STAR Sacramento. Program Benefits Improved math and literacy standardized test scores! Scholarships available on sliding scale basis.

Sibling Discounts! Small staff to student ratio. Program for 4th - 6th graders. A majority of spiral galaxies, including our own Milky Way galaxy, have a linear, bar-shaped band of stars that extends outward to either side of the core, then merges into the spiral arm structure.

Bars are thought to be temporary structures that can occur as a result of a density wave radiating outward from the core, or else due to a tidal interaction with another galaxy.

Recently, researchers described galaxies called super-luminous spirals. They are very large with an upward diameter of , light-years compared to the Milky Way's , light-year diameter.

With a mass of billion solar masses, they generate a significant amount of ultraviolet and mid-infrared light. They are thought to have an increased star formation rate around 30 times faster than the Milky Way.

Despite the prominence of large elliptical and spiral galaxies, most galaxies are dwarf galaxies. These galaxies are relatively small when compared with other galactic formations, being about one hundredth the size of the Milky Way, containing only a few billion stars.

Many dwarf galaxies may orbit a single larger galaxy; the Milky Way has at least a dozen such satellites, with an estimated — yet to be discovered.

Since small dwarf ellipticals bear little resemblance to large ellipticals, they are often called dwarf spheroidal galaxies instead.

A study of 27 Milky Way neighbors found that in all dwarf galaxies, the central mass is approximately 10 million solar masses , regardless of whether the galaxy has thousands or millions of stars.

This has led to the suggestion that galaxies are largely formed by dark matter , and that the minimum size may indicate a form of warm dark matter incapable of gravitational coalescence on a smaller scale.

Interactions between galaxies are relatively frequent, and they can play an important role in galactic evolution. Near misses between galaxies result in warping distortions due to tidal interactions , and may cause some exchange of gas and dust.

The stars of interacting galaxies will usually not collide, but the gas and dust within the two forms will interact, sometimes triggering star formation.

A collision can severely distort the shape of the galaxies, forming bars, rings or tail-like structures.

At the extreme of interactions are galactic mergers. In this case the relative momentum of the two galaxies is insufficient to allow the galaxies to pass through each other.

Instead, they gradually merge to form a single, larger galaxy. Mergers can result in significant changes to morphology, as compared to the original galaxies.

If one of the merging galaxies is much more massive than the other merging galaxy then the result is known as cannibalism. The more massive larger galaxy will remain relatively undisturbed by the merger, while the smaller galaxy is torn apart.

Stars are created within galaxies from a reserve of cold gas that forms into giant molecular clouds. Some galaxies have been observed to form stars at an exceptional rate, which is known as a starburst.

If they continue to do so, then they would consume their reserve of gas in a time span less than the lifespan of the galaxy.

Hence starburst activity usually lasts only about ten million years, a relatively brief period in the history of a galaxy.

Starburst galaxies are characterized by dusty concentrations of gas and the appearance of newly formed stars, including massive stars that ionize the surrounding clouds to create H II regions.

These outbursts trigger a chain reaction of star building that spreads throughout the gaseous region. Only when the available gas is nearly consumed or dispersed does the starburst activity end.

Starbursts are often associated with merging or interacting galaxies. The prototype example of such a starburst-forming interaction is M82 , which experienced a close encounter with the larger M Irregular galaxies often exhibit spaced knots of starburst activity.

A portion of the observable galaxies are classified as active galaxies if the galaxy contains an active galactic nucleus AGN.

A significant portion of the total energy output from the galaxy is emitted by the active galactic nucleus, instead of the stars, dust and interstellar medium of the galaxy.

The standard model for an active galactic nucleus is based upon an accretion disc that forms around a supermassive black hole SMBH at the core region of the galaxy.

The radiation from an active galactic nucleus results from the gravitational energy of matter as it falls toward the black hole from the disc.

The mechanism for producing these jets is not well understood. Blazars are believed to be an active galaxy with a relativistic jet that is pointed in the direction of Earth.

A radio galaxy emits radio frequencies from relativistic jets. A unified model of these types of active galaxies explains their differences based on the viewing angle of the observer.

Possibly related to active galactic nuclei as well as starburst regions are low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions LINERs. Seyfert galaxies are one of the two largest groups of active galaxies, along with quasars.

They have quasar-like nuclei very luminous, distant and bright sources of electromagnetic radiation with very high surface brightnesses but unlike quasars, their host galaxies are clearly detectable.

Seen in visible light, most Seyfert galaxies look like normal spiral galaxies, but when studied under other wavelengths, the luminosity of their cores is equivalent to the luminosity of whole galaxies the size of the Milky Way.

Quasars are extremely luminous and were first identified as being high redshift sources of electromagnetic energy, including radio waves and visible light, that appeared to be similar to stars rather than extended sources similar to galaxies.

Their luminosity can be times that of the Milky Way. LIRGs are more abundant than starburst galaxies, Seyfert galaxies and quasi-stellar objects at comparable total luminosity.

Infrared galaxies emit more energy in the infrared than at all other wavelengths combined. LIRGs are billion times brighter than our Sun.

Galaxies have magnetic fields of their own. Magnetic fields provide the transport of angular momentum required for the collapse of gas clouds and hence the formation of new stars.

For comparison, the Earth's magnetic field has an average strength of about 0. Galactic formation and evolution is an active area of research in astrophysics.

Current cosmological models of the early universe are based on the Big Bang theory. About , years after this event, atoms of hydrogen and helium began to form, in an event called recombination.

Nearly all the hydrogen was neutral non-ionized and readily absorbed light, and no stars had yet formed. As a result, this period has been called the " dark ages ".

It was from density fluctuations or anisotropic irregularities in this primordial matter that larger structures began to appear.

As a result, masses of baryonic matter started to condense within cold dark matter halos. Evidence for the early appearance of galaxies was found in , when it was discovered that the galaxy IOK-1 has an unusually high redshift of 6.

In December , astronomers reported that UDFj is the most distant object known and has a redshift value of The object, estimated to have existed around " million years" [] after the Big Bang which was about The existence of such early protogalaxies suggests they must have grown in the so-called "dark ages".

The light from EGS-zs has taken 13 billion years to reach Earth, and is now 30 billion light-years away, because of the expansion of the universe during 13 billion years.

The detailed process by which early galaxies formed is an open question in astrophysics. Theories can be divided into two categories: top-down and bottom-up.

In top-down correlations such as the Eggen—Lynden-Bell—Sandage [ELS] model , protogalaxies form in a large-scale simultaneous collapse lasting about one hundred million years.

Once protogalaxies began to form and contract, the first halo stars called Population III stars appeared within them. These were composed almost entirely of hydrogen and helium, and may have been massive.

If so, these huge stars would have quickly consumed their supply of fuel and became supernovae , releasing heavy elements into the interstellar medium.

Such stars are likely to have existed in the very early universe i. Within a billion years of a galaxy's formation, key structures begin to appear.

Globular clusters , the central supermassive black hole, and a galactic bulge of metal-poor Population II stars form. The creation of a supermassive black hole appears to play a key role in actively regulating the growth of galaxies by limiting the total amount of additional matter added.

During the following two billion years, the accumulated matter settles into a galactic disc. The cycle of stellar birth and death slowly increases the abundance of heavy elements, eventually allowing the formation of planets.

The evolution of galaxies can be significantly affected by interactions and collisions. Mergers of galaxies were common during the early epoch, and the majority of galaxies were peculiar in morphology.

However, gravitational stripping of the interstellar gas and dust that makes up the spiral arms produces a long train of stars known as tidal tails.

Although the Milky Way has never collided with a galaxy as large as Andromeda before, evidence of past collisions of the Milky Way with smaller dwarf galaxies is increasing.

Such large-scale interactions are rare. As time passes, mergers of two systems of equal size become less common.

Most bright galaxies have remained fundamentally unchanged for the last few billion years, and the net rate of star formation probably also peaked about ten billion years ago.

Spiral galaxies, like the Milky Way, produce new generations of stars as long as they have dense molecular clouds of interstellar hydrogen in their spiral arms.

At the end of the stellar age, galaxies will be composed of compact objects : brown dwarfs , white dwarfs that are cooling or cold " black dwarfs " , neutron stars , and black holes.

Eventually, as a result of gravitational relaxation , all stars will either fall into central supermassive black holes or be flung into intergalactic space as a result of collisions.

Deep sky surveys show that galaxies are often found in groups and clusters. Solitary galaxies that have not significantly interacted with another galaxy of comparable mass during the past billion years are relatively scarce.

Only about five percent of the galaxies surveyed have been found to be truly isolated; however, these isolated formations may have interacted and even merged with other galaxies in the past, and may still be orbited by smaller, satellite galaxies.

Isolated galaxies [note 2] can produce stars at a higher rate than normal, as their gas is not being stripped by other nearby galaxies.

On the largest scale, the universe is continually expanding, resulting in an average increase in the separation between individual galaxies see Hubble's law.

Associations of galaxies can overcome this expansion on a local scale through their mutual gravitational attraction. These associations formed early, as clumps of dark matter pulled their respective galaxies together.

Nearby groups later merged to form larger-scale clusters. This on-going merger process as well as an influx of infalling gas heats the inter-galactic gas within a cluster to very high temperatures, reaching 30— megakelvins.

Most galaxies are gravitationally bound to a number of other galaxies. These form a fractal -like hierarchical distribution of clustered structures, with the smallest such associations being termed groups.

A group of galaxies is the most common type of galactic cluster, and these formations contain a majority of the galaxies as well as most of the baryonic mass in the universe.

If there is insufficient kinetic energy , however, the group may evolve into a smaller number of galaxies through mergers.

Clusters of galaxies consist of hundreds to thousands of galaxies bound together by gravity. Superclusters contain tens of thousands of galaxies, which are found in clusters, groups and sometimes individually.

At the supercluster scale , galaxies are arranged into sheets and filaments surrounding vast empty voids. The Hercules-Corona Borealis Great Wall , currently the largest structure in the universe found so far, is 10 billion light-years three gigaparsecs in length.

The Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy are the two brightest galaxies within the group; many of the other member galaxies are dwarf companions of these two.

The peak radiation of most stars lies in the visible spectrum , so the observation of the stars that form galaxies has been a major component of optical astronomy.

It is also a favorable portion of the spectrum for observing ionized H II regions , and for examining the distribution of dusty arms. The dust present in the interstellar medium is opaque to visual light.

It is more transparent to far-infrared , which can be used to observe the interior regions of giant molecular clouds and galactic cores in great detail.

Water vapor and carbon dioxide absorb a number of useful portions of the infrared spectrum, so high-altitude or space-based telescopes are used for infrared astronomy.

The first non-visual study of galaxies, particularly active galaxies, was made using radio frequencies. The ionosphere blocks signals below this range.

Ultraviolet and X-ray telescopes can observe highly energetic galactic phenomena. Ultraviolet flares are sometimes observed when a star in a distant galaxy is torn apart from the tidal forces of a nearby black hole.

The existence of supermassive black holes at the cores of galaxies was confirmed through X-ray astronomy. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the astronomical structure. For our galaxy, see Milky Way. For other uses, see Galaxy disambiguation. Gravitationally bound astronomical structure.

Main article: Milky Way. Main article: Galaxy morphological classification. Main article: Elliptical galaxy. Main articles: Spiral galaxy and Barred spiral galaxy.

Main article: Dwarf galaxy. Main article: Interacting galaxy. Main article: Starburst galaxy. Main article: Active galactic nucleus.

Main article: Blazar. Main article: Low-ionization nuclear emission-line region. Main article: Seyfert galaxy. Main article: Quasar.

Main article: Luminous infrared galaxy. Main article: Galaxy formation and evolution. XDF view field compared to the angular size of the Moon.

Several thousand galaxies, each consisting of billions of stars , are in this small view. XDF view: Each light speck is a galaxy, some of which are as old as XDF image shows from left fully mature galaxies, nearly mature galaxies from five to nine billion years ago , and protogalaxies , blazing with young stars beyond nine billion years.

Main article: Future of an expanding universe. Seyfert's Sextet is an example of a compact galaxy group. The largest structures in the universe are larger than expected.

Are these actual structures or random density fluctuations? Play media. Hubble Legacy Field second video []. See also: Observational astronomy.

This ultraviolet image of Andromeda shows blue regions containing young, massive stars. Dark galaxy Galactic orientation Galaxy formation and evolution Illustris project List of galaxies List of nearest galaxies Luminous infrared galaxy Outline of galaxies Supermassive black hole Timeline of knowledge about galaxies, clusters of galaxies, and large-scale structure UniverseMachine.

August 12, Retrieved April 17, Bibcode : Sci June 16, Hubble News Desk. Archived from the original on July 20, Retrieved March 4, Based upon: Graham, A.

The Astronomical Journal. Bibcode : AJ California Institute of Technology. Retrieved January 9, November 2, National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

Retrieved August 10, The Astrophysical Journal. Bibcode : ApJ Conselice; et al. The New York Times. Retrieved October 17, European Space Agency. Retrieved September 21, The Fundamentals of Modern Astrophysics.

Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing. Retrieved January 28, University of Cambridge. Retrieved January 15, Onions et al.

Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved November 11, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. Archived from the original PDF on July 20, Retrieved January 5, September 2, Retrieved January 3, Chapter 3: Echo Library.

September 28, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved July 11, Retrieved July 8, Journal of the American Oriental Society.

November University of St. Retrieved January 8, London, England: H. Chapelle, From p. To a spectator placed in an indefinite space, November 24, George Mason University.

Archived from the original on June 30, Retrieved January 4, On the construction of the heavens". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London.

Herschel's diagram of the galaxy appears immediately after the article's last page. Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society. Bibcode : AAS Observatoire de Paris.

March 11, Archived from the original on June 22, Retrieved April 19, Retrieved June 11, Disturbing the Universe.

Pan Books. Lowell Observatory Bulletin. Bibcode : LowOB Popular Astronomy. Bibcode : PA Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific.

Bibcode : PASP.. US National Academy of Sciences. Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. Sonoma State University.

Astronomy and Astrophysics. Scientific American. Bibcode : SciAm. October 17, November 27, Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia.

Bibcode : PASA The Guardian. October 13, Retrieved October 14, Leicester University Physics Department.

Archived from the original on July 29, Retrieved June 8, Cornell University.

STAR Sacramento. Program Benefits Improved math and literacy standardized test scores! Scholarships available on sliding scale basis. Sibling Discounts!

Small staff to student ratio. Program for 4th - 6th graders. Infrared galaxies emit more energy in the infrared than at all other wavelengths combined.

LIRGs are billion times brighter than our Sun. Galaxies have magnetic fields of their own. Magnetic fields provide the transport of angular momentum required for the collapse of gas clouds and hence the formation of new stars.

For comparison, the Earth's magnetic field has an average strength of about 0. Galactic formation and evolution is an active area of research in astrophysics.

Current cosmological models of the early universe are based on the Big Bang theory. About , years after this event, atoms of hydrogen and helium began to form, in an event called recombination.

Nearly all the hydrogen was neutral non-ionized and readily absorbed light, and no stars had yet formed. As a result, this period has been called the " dark ages ".

It was from density fluctuations or anisotropic irregularities in this primordial matter that larger structures began to appear. As a result, masses of baryonic matter started to condense within cold dark matter halos.

Evidence for the early appearance of galaxies was found in , when it was discovered that the galaxy IOK-1 has an unusually high redshift of 6. In December , astronomers reported that UDFj is the most distant object known and has a redshift value of The object, estimated to have existed around " million years" [] after the Big Bang which was about The existence of such early protogalaxies suggests they must have grown in the so-called "dark ages".

The light from EGS-zs has taken 13 billion years to reach Earth, and is now 30 billion light-years away, because of the expansion of the universe during 13 billion years.

The detailed process by which early galaxies formed is an open question in astrophysics. Theories can be divided into two categories: top-down and bottom-up.

In top-down correlations such as the Eggen—Lynden-Bell—Sandage [ELS] model , protogalaxies form in a large-scale simultaneous collapse lasting about one hundred million years.

Once protogalaxies began to form and contract, the first halo stars called Population III stars appeared within them.

These were composed almost entirely of hydrogen and helium, and may have been massive. If so, these huge stars would have quickly consumed their supply of fuel and became supernovae , releasing heavy elements into the interstellar medium.

Such stars are likely to have existed in the very early universe i. Within a billion years of a galaxy's formation, key structures begin to appear.

Globular clusters , the central supermassive black hole, and a galactic bulge of metal-poor Population II stars form.

The creation of a supermassive black hole appears to play a key role in actively regulating the growth of galaxies by limiting the total amount of additional matter added.

During the following two billion years, the accumulated matter settles into a galactic disc. The cycle of stellar birth and death slowly increases the abundance of heavy elements, eventually allowing the formation of planets.

The evolution of galaxies can be significantly affected by interactions and collisions. Mergers of galaxies were common during the early epoch, and the majority of galaxies were peculiar in morphology.

However, gravitational stripping of the interstellar gas and dust that makes up the spiral arms produces a long train of stars known as tidal tails.

Although the Milky Way has never collided with a galaxy as large as Andromeda before, evidence of past collisions of the Milky Way with smaller dwarf galaxies is increasing.

Such large-scale interactions are rare. As time passes, mergers of two systems of equal size become less common. Most bright galaxies have remained fundamentally unchanged for the last few billion years, and the net rate of star formation probably also peaked about ten billion years ago.

Spiral galaxies, like the Milky Way, produce new generations of stars as long as they have dense molecular clouds of interstellar hydrogen in their spiral arms.

At the end of the stellar age, galaxies will be composed of compact objects : brown dwarfs , white dwarfs that are cooling or cold " black dwarfs " , neutron stars , and black holes.

Eventually, as a result of gravitational relaxation , all stars will either fall into central supermassive black holes or be flung into intergalactic space as a result of collisions.

Deep sky surveys show that galaxies are often found in groups and clusters. Solitary galaxies that have not significantly interacted with another galaxy of comparable mass during the past billion years are relatively scarce.

Only about five percent of the galaxies surveyed have been found to be truly isolated; however, these isolated formations may have interacted and even merged with other galaxies in the past, and may still be orbited by smaller, satellite galaxies.

Isolated galaxies [note 2] can produce stars at a higher rate than normal, as their gas is not being stripped by other nearby galaxies.

On the largest scale, the universe is continually expanding, resulting in an average increase in the separation between individual galaxies see Hubble's law.

Associations of galaxies can overcome this expansion on a local scale through their mutual gravitational attraction. These associations formed early, as clumps of dark matter pulled their respective galaxies together.

Nearby groups later merged to form larger-scale clusters. This on-going merger process as well as an influx of infalling gas heats the inter-galactic gas within a cluster to very high temperatures, reaching 30— megakelvins.

Most galaxies are gravitationally bound to a number of other galaxies. These form a fractal -like hierarchical distribution of clustered structures, with the smallest such associations being termed groups.

A group of galaxies is the most common type of galactic cluster, and these formations contain a majority of the galaxies as well as most of the baryonic mass in the universe.

If there is insufficient kinetic energy , however, the group may evolve into a smaller number of galaxies through mergers.

Clusters of galaxies consist of hundreds to thousands of galaxies bound together by gravity. Superclusters contain tens of thousands of galaxies, which are found in clusters, groups and sometimes individually.

At the supercluster scale , galaxies are arranged into sheets and filaments surrounding vast empty voids. The Hercules-Corona Borealis Great Wall , currently the largest structure in the universe found so far, is 10 billion light-years three gigaparsecs in length.

The Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy are the two brightest galaxies within the group; many of the other member galaxies are dwarf companions of these two.

The peak radiation of most stars lies in the visible spectrum , so the observation of the stars that form galaxies has been a major component of optical astronomy.

It is also a favorable portion of the spectrum for observing ionized H II regions , and for examining the distribution of dusty arms.

The dust present in the interstellar medium is opaque to visual light. It is more transparent to far-infrared , which can be used to observe the interior regions of giant molecular clouds and galactic cores in great detail.

Water vapor and carbon dioxide absorb a number of useful portions of the infrared spectrum, so high-altitude or space-based telescopes are used for infrared astronomy.

The first non-visual study of galaxies, particularly active galaxies, was made using radio frequencies.

The ionosphere blocks signals below this range. Ultraviolet and X-ray telescopes can observe highly energetic galactic phenomena. Ultraviolet flares are sometimes observed when a star in a distant galaxy is torn apart from the tidal forces of a nearby black hole.

The existence of supermassive black holes at the cores of galaxies was confirmed through X-ray astronomy.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the astronomical structure. For our galaxy, see Milky Way. For other uses, see Galaxy disambiguation.

Gravitationally bound astronomical structure. Main article: Milky Way. Main article: Galaxy morphological classification. Main article: Elliptical galaxy.

Main articles: Spiral galaxy and Barred spiral galaxy. Main article: Dwarf galaxy. Main article: Interacting galaxy.

Main article: Starburst galaxy. Main article: Active galactic nucleus. Main article: Blazar. Main article: Low-ionization nuclear emission-line region.

Main article: Seyfert galaxy. Main article: Quasar. Main article: Luminous infrared galaxy. Main article: Galaxy formation and evolution. XDF view field compared to the angular size of the Moon.

Several thousand galaxies, each consisting of billions of stars , are in this small view. XDF view: Each light speck is a galaxy, some of which are as old as XDF image shows from left fully mature galaxies, nearly mature galaxies from five to nine billion years ago , and protogalaxies , blazing with young stars beyond nine billion years.

Main article: Future of an expanding universe. Seyfert's Sextet is an example of a compact galaxy group. The largest structures in the universe are larger than expected.

Are these actual structures or random density fluctuations? Play media. Hubble Legacy Field second video []. See also: Observational astronomy.

This ultraviolet image of Andromeda shows blue regions containing young, massive stars. Dark galaxy Galactic orientation Galaxy formation and evolution Illustris project List of galaxies List of nearest galaxies Luminous infrared galaxy Outline of galaxies Supermassive black hole Timeline of knowledge about galaxies, clusters of galaxies, and large-scale structure UniverseMachine.

August 12, Retrieved April 17, Bibcode : Sci June 16, Hubble News Desk. Archived from the original on July 20, Retrieved March 4, Based upon: Graham, A.

The Astronomical Journal. Bibcode : AJ California Institute of Technology. Retrieved January 9, November 2, National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

Retrieved August 10, The Astrophysical Journal. Bibcode : ApJ Conselice; et al. The New York Times. Retrieved October 17, European Space Agency.

Retrieved September 21, The Fundamentals of Modern Astrophysics. Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing. Retrieved January 28, University of Cambridge.

Retrieved January 15, Onions et al. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved November 11, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. Archived from the original PDF on July 20, Retrieved January 5, September 2, Retrieved January 3, Chapter 3: Echo Library.

September 28, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved July 11, Retrieved July 8, Journal of the American Oriental Society.

November University of St. Retrieved January 8, London, England: H. Chapelle, From p. To a spectator placed in an indefinite space, November 24, George Mason University.

Archived from the original on June 30, Retrieved January 4, On the construction of the heavens". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London.

Herschel's diagram of the galaxy appears immediately after the article's last page. Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society.

Bibcode : AAS Observatoire de Paris. March 11, Archived from the original on June 22, Retrieved April 19, Retrieved June 11, Disturbing the Universe.

Pan Books. Lowell Observatory Bulletin. Bibcode : LowOB Popular Astronomy. Bibcode : PA Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific.

Bibcode : PASP.. US National Academy of Sciences. Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada.

Sonoma State University. Astronomy and Astrophysics. Scientific American. Bibcode : SciAm. October 17, November 27, Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia.

Bibcode : PASA The Guardian. October 13, Retrieved October 14, Leicester University Physics Department. Archived from the original on July 29, Retrieved June 8, Cornell University.

October 20, Archived from the original on June 29, Retrieved May 11, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

March 6, Archived from the original on July 10, Retrieved November 30, Astrophysics and Space Science. Relations to host galaxies".

Astronomy and Astrophysics Letters. January 9, UCBerkeley News. Retrieved May 24, March 21, Retrieved March 21, October 14, Archived from the original on August 28, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.

May 31, Archived from the original on September 7, Retrieved December 6, University of Leicester. Archived from the original on February 27, Retrieved December 5, April 24, New Scientist.

Retrieved January 10, August 27, Retrieved August 27, University of Maryland Department of Astronomy. Archived from the original on May 9, Retrieved December 19, Swinburne University.

August 29, Demographics and Host Galaxies of Starbursts. Bibcode : ASSL.. July 13, Archived from the original on July 7, September University of Alabama.

Retrieved December 11, Retrieved December 20, Demographics of Nuclear Activity in Nearby Galaxies". Bibcode : SchpJ ESO Press Release.

Retrieved October 15, November 18,

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